Brunetta spamma per vendere il suo libretto

Anche io ho ricevuto lo spam del ministro Brunetta che mi invitava ad acquistare il suo libretto sulla “Rivoluzione”. Forse ha letto la denuncia dei redditi di Obama, pubblicata pochi giorni fa, contenente milioni di dollari di guadagni dalla vendita dei suoi libri ed ha pensato “vojo anch’io”.

Ricordo che questo tipo di pubblicità è vietata per legge, dal testo unico per la privacy art 130:
1. L’uso di sistemi automatizzati di chiamata senza l’intervento di un operatore per l’invio di materiale pubblicitario o di vendita diretta o per il compimento di ricerche di mercato o di comunicazione commerciale e’ consentito con il consenso dell’interessato.
2. La disposizione di cui al comma 1 si applica anche alle comunicazioni elettroniche, effettuate per le finalita’ ivi indicate, mediante posta elettronica, telefax, messaggi del tipo Mms (Multimedia Messaging Service) o Sms (Short Message Service) o di altro tipo.

Lo spam non è una cosa di poco conto, perché tanto la posta indesiderata si cancella: se tutti facessero come il Brunetta, la posta elettronica non esisterebbe e torneremmo ai fax.

Linux on iBook G4 12″ 1,2 Ghz

This howto describes the linux installation on an Ibook G4 12″ 1,2 Ghz ( LinuxOnIbookG4 )

Here you can find the files related to this document:

Download Configuration Files

This is my iBook G4 Version:

cpu info:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
root@abook aronchi # cat /proc/cpuinfo

processor : 0
cpu : 7447A, altivec supported
clock : 1200MHz
revision : 1.1 (pvr 8003 0101)
bogomips : 598.01
machine : PowerBook6,5
motherboard : PowerBook6,5 MacRISC3 Power Macintosh
detected as : 287 (iBook G4)
pmac flags : 0000001b
L2 cache : 512K unified
memory : 512MB
pmac-generation : NewWorld

The clock speed could be different because of speedfreq use, see below for more informations.

lspci info:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
root@abook aronchi # lspci
0000:00:0b.0 Host bridge: Apple Computer Inc. UniNorth 2 AGP
0000:00:10.0 VGA compatible controller: ATI Technologies Inc M9+ 5C63 [Radeon Mobility 9200 (AGP)] (rev 01)
0001:10:0b.0 Host bridge: Apple Computer Inc. UniNorth 2 PCI
0001:10:12.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 03)
0001:10:17.0 Class ff00: Apple Computer Inc. KeyLargo/Intrepid Mac I/O
0001:10:18.0 USB Controller: Apple Computer Inc. KeyLargo/Intrepid USB
0001:10:19.0 USB Controller: Apple Computer Inc. KeyLargo/Intrepid USB
0001:10:1a.0 USB Controller: Apple Computer Inc. KeyLargo/Intrepid USB
0001:10:1b.0 USB Controller: NEC Corporation USB (rev 43)
0001:10:1b.1 USB Controller: NEC Corporation USB (rev 43)
0001:10:1b.2 USB Controller: NEC Corporation USB 2.0 (rev 04)
0002:20:0b.0 Host bridge: Apple Computer Inc. UniNorth 2 Internal PCI
0002:20:0d.0 Class ff00: Apple Computer Inc. UniNorth/Intrepid ATA/100
0002:20:0e.0 FireWire (IEEE 1394): Apple Computer Inc. UniNorth 2 FireWire (rev 81)
0002:20:0f.0 Ethernet controller: Apple Computer Inc. UniNorth 2 GMAC (Sun GEM) (rev 80)

Linux Installation

I’ve installed a Gentoo, following the ppc handbook. After a base installation, you can use my conf files to make your iBook G4 a real lovely GNU/Linux (Gentoo) home.

Kernel Config

Copy my .config file into /usr/src/linux (or wherever you did copy the kernel source files) and do a

[sourcecode language=”java”]make oldconfig[/sourcecode]



This is my make.conf file:


I’ve managed to make 3D acceleration with DRI work and VGA out, also together.
So, If you want to use 3D acceleration without MergedFB or Xinerama, take my xorg.conf

This option make a faster 3D acceleration, but video output will not work.

But if you want to use Xinerama with dual head configuration, without 3D acceleration (both clone mode and one screen left of the other), you want to use that:
Xorg.conf.dual with a cvs or => 6.8.2 Xorg version (because you need these xorg radeon patches, merged only in newer xorg versions. If you don’t want to overwrite your existing xorg version, you can build xorg from cvs as in this xorg-cvs-howto.txt , with my host.def.

NB: if you want to have the two screens spanning on OSX you must patch your iBook with that Spanning Patch Ibook: I suggest you to do that if you know what you’re doing. It’s not necessary if you use only Linux.

I made MergedFB working, so now I have a clone mode (VGA out is the same of the TFT) with 3D DRI acceleration.
You must use this simple configuration:

NB: These 3 configurations are alternative, you can use one.

Make the Apple key works as Altgr and the keyboard more linux confortable

My Apple G4 12″ doesn’t have any Altgr Key, so it’s impossibile to write composed symbols as @ or #. To correct this problem, you can do this procedure on Gnome:

1. Computer -> Desktop Preferences -> Keyboard
2. “Layout Options” tab
3. In the right-hand list open the “Third level choosers” group
4. Highlight “Press Left Win-key to choose 3rd level”
5. Click “Add”

Or add this to keyboard section on /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:

[sourcecode language=”java”]”XkbOptions” “lv3:lwin_switch”[/sourcecode]

My xorg.conf file keyboard section is:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
Section “InputDevice”
Identifier “Keyboard0”
Driver “keyboard”
Option “XkbKeycodes” “macintosh”
Option “XkbSymbols” “macintosh/us”
Option “XkbGeometry” “macintosh”
Option “XkbOptions” “ctrl:nocaps, lv3:lwin_switch”
Option “XkbRules” “xfree86”
Option “XkbModel” “pc105”
Option “LeftAlt” “Meta”
Option “RightAlt” “LWin”
Option “XkbLayout” “it”

On the US keyboard, the ~ and +/- keys aren’t mapped correctly.
add these lines to a startup script:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
xmodmap -e “keycode 49 = section plusminus”
xmodmap -e “keycode 94 = quoteleft asciitilde”

Three Button Mouse Emulation

I usually use an external USB three button mouse, but I want to have an alternative access to the middle and right button without the external mouse.
To use an alternative key to emulate the mouse buttons, you must do:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
echo “1” > /proc/sys/dev/mac_hid/mouse_button_emulation

The standard keys now are on Fn+CTRL for middle button and Fn+alt for right button.
If you want to change the keys, you must do:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
echo “68” > /proc/sys/dev/mac_hid/mouse_button2_keycode
echo “87” > /proc/sys/dev/mac_hid/mouse_button3_keycode

Remember, you must do these commands every boot, so you can add to an init script.

You can change the keycodes 68 and 87 writing your own. To view what keycode is a button press you can use:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
[sourcecode language=”java”]

If your distro supports /etc/sysctl.conf, you can add these lines to this file:
[sourcecode language=”java”]
# Mouse button emulation:
dev/mac_hid/mouse_button_emulation = 1
#dev/mac_hid/mouse_button2_keycode = 68
#dev/mac_hid/mouse_button3_keycode = 87

Uncomment the last lines if you want to edit the keycodes.


In order to make the keyword and the power management more usable, i use pbbuttons:

[sourcecode language=”java”
emerge pbbuttonsd
rc-update add pbbuttonsd default

Now you must configure the /etc/pbbuttons.conf file. Here is mine:


Kernel 2.6.11 comes with support for putting the iBook G4 to sleep. However you still have to enable it when configuring the kernel.

Benh has released a patch that supports Apple iBook g4 sleep: you need it if you have a kernel version < 2.6.11.
You can find the 2.6.9 patch version also here:
Just apply it to kernel source with

[sourcecode language=”java”]
cp ./albook-ibookg4-sleep-4.diff.gz /usr/src/linux
cd /usr/src/linux
gunzip ./albook-ibookg4-sleep-4.diff.gz
patch -p1 < albook-ibookg4-sleep-4.diff make menuconfig [/sourcecode] And add the Powerbook Power Management in the Drivers -> Macintosh kernel configuration section

After that, you can use pbbuttons to make the iBook sleep when the LCD is closed.


Some problems with sleep function comes from modules loaded (usb, thermal, etc). You can solve them if you use powerprefs. Before going to sleep, your iBook must do:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
lsmod | cut -f 1 -d ” ” | grep -v Module | xargs > /tmp/modules.loaded
rmmod `cat /tmp/modules.loaded`

and after resume it must do:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
for module in `cat /tmp/modules.loaded`
modprobe $module

In gentoo you must install app-laptop/powerprefs and use my /etc/power/event.d/modules file.

CPU Variable Speed

To make you iBook a less battery user, you can alter automagically the cpu freq in order to use only the calculation power you need. So, when you use all the cpu, it works at the 100% of his speed, but when you don’t use it the cpu runs slower to get colder.

I’ve used speedfreq:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
emerge speedfreq
rc-update add speedfreqd default

Fan speed

To get a better control of your iBook G4 temperature and fan speed, you can use the module therm_adt746x.

[sourcecode language=”java”]
modprobe therm_adt746x

or put the module into your /etc/modules.autoload file


The module I use and I load at startup are written into a file called /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6:
modules.autoload ( My /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6 )

[sourcecode language=”java”] sungem
ohci_hcd #usb 1
ehci_hcd #usb 2
ohci1394 #firewire
usb_storage #mp3 mplayer and Sony digital camera
snd-powermac #for sound
snd-pcm-oss #for sound
usb-serial #for GPRS using my sony ericsson phone
visor # for palm m125
#apm_emu #emulate APM (power management)
therm_adt746 #fan control (I use fan_speed=128)
uinput #for mouseemu
uninorth-agp #for DRI (agpgart will come with it)
radeon #for DRI 3D video acceleration
therm_adt746x # to control fan speed and temp


You can configure the sound card with alsa modules and either using a sound daemon (i.e. arts), or by using oss emulation output. You can insert arts in USE flags, as I do.

Mac On Linux

Mol runs correctly on my iBook, with networking enabled.
It’s necessary to add this use flag:


before emerging //MOL//.


[sourcecode language=”java”]

and now edit


to get fullscreen with MOL. Now you have linux on CTRL+ALT+F7 an MacOSX on CTRL+ALT+F8

I use an external ADSL eth0 router with dhcp, so I’ve used tun.ko kernel module and this configuration for mol:


I use the internal dhcp so in MOL I don’t have to specify an address.


I use this settings for hdparm, to increase hard disk performances and decrease the hdd temperature:
[sourcecode language=”java”]
hdparm -S 1 -d1 -m16 -c1 -X udma5 /dev/hda

Make sure to load this settings on every boot.

Time config

Since I have also MacOSX, I had a problem with my clock settings. The hardware clock is set to UTC time by MacOSX, and my Linux system on everyboot read the time from the hardware clock, thinking this is set against my local time (Europe/Rome, CEST).
To solve this problem, you must tell hwclock to use –utc when used to update your system time.
In a RedHat/Fedora system is really simple, once known the origin of the problem:
Simply write this few lines into /etc/sysconfig/clock

[sourcecode language=”java”]

Airport Extreme Wireless Driver

It seems ( someone has written a driver for the Broadcom 43xx wireless chip, the one inside AirPort Extreme included into our iBook G4. It needs 2.6.14 kernel, and I’ve uploaded my config file for the 2.6.14-rc4 (the latest 2.6.14 branch I’ve found at this time).

Now you must get the firmware of your driver. Let /media/macosx be the MacOSX partition mount point. then you must use the fwcutter utility in the package:

[sourcecode language=”java”]
./fwcutter /media/macosx/System/Library/Extensions/AppleAirPort2.kext/Contents/MacOS/AppleAirPort2

and then copy the *.fw files on

[sourcecode language=”java”]
cp *.fw /lib/firmware/

If you want, I’ve made a copy of the driver you can download:
I loaded the bcm430x driver correctly, but I don’t have a wireless access point here, so I cannot try if it works.

Linux on a Compaq 1600 XL HOWTO

This Notebook is fully linux compatible

Here is the specifics of that notebook:

CPU Genuine Intel Celeron Mendocino 466 Mhz (Bogomips 927.33
Memory 64 Mb (I use 8 of this for the videoram)
Floppy Unknown 1.44MB 3.5″
Hard Disk Fujitsu 6Gb ATAPI / IDE
Modem Conexant HSP MicroModem 56K pci (Software Modem)
Monitor: XTFT 14″
Video Card Trident Microsystems Cyberblade (generic) Cyberblade i1 pci
Sound Card Via Technologies Inc. VT82C686 pci [Apollo Super Ac97/audio]
Touchpad Synaptic

Thanks to Harddrake for those informations :) ( you can download it at∞ )
Update (27-5-2002): I’ve corrected the Mouse cursor problem with Linux in a Compaq Presario
Sometimes, when the memory is full and linux swaps on hard drive, the mouse cursor leave his correct position and the mouse clicks 1 cm left from the pointer. To correct that problem, insert the line Option “sw_cursor” in the Section “Device” of /etc/X11/XF68Config-4 configuration file. That corrects the problem. I’ve updated the configuration files.

Update: Now also the Conexant winmodem works correctly!
Thanks to Mark Hopkins for this wimodem help
You can find a driver at the location:
I’ve tested it with Red Hat 7.2, and it works correctly. Because I don’t live on US, after the installation with the rpm of the driver I’ve launched that command:
# hsfconfig –country
And then Selected “Italy”. You can select here your different country.
See those urls to get more information:

I’ve installed a Mandrake 7.2 , a Red Hat 7.1 and a Red Hat 7.2 distribution. They don’t recognize our graphic card, but the only thing you have to do is to replace the /etc/X11/XF86Config or /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 with the one provided in this page. (Read the files table). I use the touchpad or an external ps2 mouse, there’s no problem with the configuration.
If you want to use an external ps2 wheel mouse you must disable the gpm daemon on console, because it makes the mouse on console crazy and flipping. If you want to use the wheel, you must edit the section “imputdevice” as follow

Section “InputDevice”
Identifier “Mouse0”
# Modified by mouseconfig
Driver “mouse”
Option “Device” “/dev/mouse”
Option “Protocol” “IMPS/2”
Option “Emulate3Buttons” “no”
Option “ZAxisMapping” “4 5”

This notebook has a confortable little display that shows the battery status, so I have not installed any dock to show the apm status in my desktop. Just run “apm” on a console if you want the % of charge.

And here is my configuration files:
Kernel Configuration (version 2.2.4-test11).
The soundcard works with the Via kernel driver, just do a modprobe to load the modules (Red Hat 7.2 does it automatically): .config

Xfree Configuration (for version 3.3.6)

It’s with italian keyboard, so if you want an other country map just modify the keyboard section and substitute the “it” with your keymap.

I used there 8 Mb for the videoram, setted from the bios. To use the mtrr acceleration, execute this command (after recompiling the kernel, with my .config file or with mtrr enabled):

echo “base=0xF5000000 size=8192k type=write-combining” >/proc/mtrr


Xfree Configuration (for version 4.*) (NEW)
The only way to make the new Xfree working with our laptop is to change first the /etc/lilo.conf file, adding a line with the VGA mode. If not, launching the Xfree server you will get working section of video, but not centered and moved on the right (if you can correct this error, send the solution to me). So change the lilo.conf file like this:

vga=791 <-------- That line is fundamental lba32 prompt timeout=30 message=/boot/message default=Windows image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.2-2 label=linux read-only root=/dev/hda7 append="ide=ata66 idebus=66" vga=788 <--------# That line is fundamental image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.2-2 <----- this section is the same # that above, but without the vga line. Add it to be #sure when you will #reboot to have at least one lilo image working. label=linuxtext read-only root=/dev/hda7 append="idebus=66 ide0=ata66 ide0=dma hda=autotune ide0=autotune" other=/dev/hda1 <--- this is not fundamental :) optional label=Windows Then you must be sure to use the Xfree 4 version. In modern distribution (like Mandrake 7.2, 8, Red Hat 7.1 and so on) you have the choice at the installation time. After that, you can change the Xfree version running on your machine by changing the /etc/X11/X simbolic link. If it brings to /usr/bin/X11/XFree86 then you're using the 4.* version. If it link to a /usr/bin/X11/XF86_* then you're using the 3.3.6 one. Just change that link to the one you want!! So now you can put my configuration file XF86Config-4 in your /etc/X11 dir. It's with italian keyboard, so if you want an other country map just modify the keyboard section and substitute the "it" with your keymap. I used there 4 Mb for the videoram, setted from the bios. To use the mtrr acceleration, se the relative documentation in the kernel source tree. Files XF86Config (version 3) # XF86Config auto-generated by XF86Setup # # Copyright (c) 1996 by The XFree86 Project, Inc. # # Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a # copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), # to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation # the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, # and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the # Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: # # The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in # all copies or substantial portions of the Software. # # THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR # IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL # THE XFREE86 PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, # WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF # OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE # SOFTWARE. # # Except as contained in this notice, the name of the XFree86 Project shall # not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other # dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the # XFree86 Project. # # See 'man XF86Config' for info on the format of this file Section "Files" RgbPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb" FontPath "unix/:-1" # FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi:unscaled,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi:unscaled,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/URW,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi" EndSection Section "ServerFlags" EndSection Section "Keyboard" Protocol "Standard" AutoRepeat 250 30 LeftAlt Meta RightAlt Meta ScrollLock Compose RightCtl Control XkbKeycodes "xfree86" XkbTypes "default" XkbCompat "default" XkbSymbols "us(pc105)" XkbGeometry "pc" XkbRules "xfree86" XkbModel "pc105" XkbLayout "it" # XkbSymbols "us(pc101)" # XkbModel "pc101" #"pc104" # XkbLayout "us" #"de" # XkbVariant "nodeadkeys" EndSection Section "Pointer" Protocol "PS/2" Device "/dev/psaux" BaudRate 1200 Emulate3Timeout 50 EndSection Section "Monitor" Identifier "Generic Multisync" VendorName "Unknown" ModelName "Unknown" HorizSync 30-64 VertRefresh 60-60 Modeline "1024x768" 65.00 1024 1032 1176 1344 768 771 777 806 -hsync -vsync EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "Generic VGA" VendorName "Unknown" BoardName "Unknown" Chipset "generic" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "My Video Card" VendorName "Unknown" BoardName "Unknown" Chipset "cyberblade" EndSection Section "Screen" Driver "Accel" Device "My Video Card" Monitor "Generic Multisync" DefaultColorDepth 32 BlankTime 0 SuspendTime 0 OffTime 0 SubSection "Display" Depth 8 Modes "1024x768" ViewPort 0 0 EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 15 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 24 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 32 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection EndSection Section "Screen" Driver "SVGA" Device "My Video Card" Monitor "Generic Multisync" DefaultColorDepth 32 BlankTime 0 SuspendTime 0 OffTime 0 SubSection "Display" Depth 8 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 15 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 24 Modes "1024x768" ViewPort 0 0 EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 32 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection EndSection Section "Screen" Driver "VGA16" Device "Generic VGA" Monitor "Generic Multisync" BlankTime 0 SuspendTime 0 OffTime 0 SubSection "Display" Depth 4 Modes "1024x768" ViewPort 0 0 EndSubSection EndSection Section "Screen" Driver "VGA2" Device "Generic VGA" Monitor "Generic Multisync" BlankTime 0 SuspendTime 0 OffTime 0 SubSection "Display" Depth 1 Modes "1024x768" ViewPort 0 0 EndSubSection EndSection XF86Config-4 # XFree86 4.0 configuration generated by Xconfigurator Section "ServerLayout" Identifier "XFree86 Configured" Screen 0 "Screen0" 0 0 InputDevice "Mouse0" "CorePointer" InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard" EndSection # By default, Red Hat Linux 6.0 and later use xfs Section "Files" FontPath "unix/:7100" EndSection # Module loading section Section "Module" Load "dbe" # Double-buffering Load "GLcore" # OpenGL support Load "dri" # Direct rendering infrastructure Load "glx" # OpenGL X protocol interface Load "extmod" # Misc. required extensions Load "v4l" # Video4Linux # Load "pex5" # PHIGS for X 3D environment (obsolete) # Load "record" # X event recorder # Load "xie" # X Image Extension (obsolete) # You only need the following two modules if you do not use xfs. # Load "freetype" # TrueType font handler # Load "type1" # Adobe Type 1 font handler EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Keyboard0" Driver "keyboard" Option "XkbLayout" "it" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Mouse0" # Modified by mouseconfig Driver "mouse" Option "Device" "/dev/mouse" Option "Protocol" "PS/2" Option "Emulate3Buttons" "no" Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" EndSection Section "Monitor" Identifier "CustomConfiguration" VendorName "Unknown" ModelName "Unknown" HorizSync 31.5-57 VertRefresh 50-90 Option "dpms" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "My Video Card" Driver "trident" BoardName "Unknown" # Use Option "nolinear" if the server doesn't start up correctly # (this avoids the linear framebuffer probe). If that fails try # option "nomemaccess". # # Refer to /usr/X11R6/lib/doc/README.S3, and the XF86_S3 man page. EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "Linux Frame Buffer" Driver "fbdev" BoardName "Unknown" EndSection Section "Screen" Identifier "Screen0" Device "My Video Card" Monitor "CustomConfiguration" DefaultDepth 16 Subsection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection EndSection Section "DRI" Mode 0666 EndSection XF86Config-4 Debian ### BEGIN DEBCONF SECTION # XF86Config-4 (XFree86 server configuration file) generated by dexconf, the # Debian X Configuration tool, using values from the debconf database. # # Edit this file with caution, and see the XF86Config-4 manual page. # (Type "man XF86Config-4" at the shell prompt.) # # If you want your changes to this file preserved by dexconf, only make changes # before the "### BEGIN DEBCONF SECTION" line above, and/or after the # "### END DEBCONF SECTION" line below. # # To change things within the debconf section, run the command: # dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xfree86 # as root. Also see "How do I add custom sections to a dexconf-generated # XF86Config or XF86Config-4 file?" in /usr/share/doc/xfree86-common/FAQ.gz. Section "Files" FontPath "unix/:7100" # local font server # if the local font server has problems, we can fall back on these FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/:unscaled" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/:unscaled" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/Type1" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi" EndSection Section "Module" Load "GLcore" Load "bitmap" Load "dbe" Load "ddc" Load "dri" Load "extmod" Load "freetype" Load "glx" Load "int10" Load "pex5" Load "record" Load "speedo" Load "type1" Load "vbe" Load "xie" # Load "xtt" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Generic Keyboard" Driver "keyboard" Option "CoreKeyboard" Option "XkbRules" "xfree86" Option "XkbModel" "pc105" Option "XkbLayout" "it" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Configured Mouse" Driver "mouse" Option "CorePointer" Option "Device" "/dev/psaux" Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2" Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Generic Mouse" Driver "mouse" Option "SendCoreEvents" "true" Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2" Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "Trident Cyberblade i1" Driver "trident" VideoRam 8024 Option "sw_cursor" EndSection Section "Monitor" Identifier "Generic Monitor" HorizSync 30-60 VertRefresh 50-75 Option "DPMS" EndSection Section "Screen" Identifier "Default Screen" Device "Trident Cyberblade i1" Monitor "Generic Monitor" DefaultDepth 24 SubSection "Display" Depth 1 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 4 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 8 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 15 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 24 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection EndSection Section "ServerLayout" Identifier "Default Layout" Screen "Default Screen" InputDevice "Generic Keyboard" InputDevice "Configured Mouse" InputDevice "Generic Mouse" EndSection Section "DRI" Mode 0666 EndSection ### END DEBCONF SECTION I'm working to use the special internet keys over the keyboard, so stay tuned! Please email me anything you want to add or modify into this page.

Clima: Matteoli, Accordo di Kyoto non basta, fare di più

E fin qui siamo tutti d’accordo. Certo che se almeno venisse ratificato questo protocollo da parte degli Stati Uniti, che impone solamente una riduzione del 6% delle emissioni e che quindi è inadeguato ed insufficiente (ma è sempre un primo passo), allora potrebbe partire almeno questo progetto.
Ricordo che il protocollo di Kyoto per andare in porto dev’essere ratificato da un insieme di paesi che coprano almeno il 55% delle emissioni attuali, e che Stati Uniti e Russia non hanno ancora accettato (se uno qualsiasi dei due firmasse, il progetto potrebbe partire).
Quindi la notizia del progetto portato avanti dal nostro ministro dell’ambiente mi può stare anche bene, ma prima di pensare a nuovi finanziamenti si potrebbe cercare un accordo per portare a termine quelli precedenti.
Oltre a questo problema, bisognerà vedere su quali ambiti andranno a finire i finanziamenti di 30 milioni di euro previsti per questo progetto a due mani, e mi piacerebbe sapere perché Italia e Stati Uniti prendano strade diverse da quelle degli accordi internazionali già stabiliti ed in itinere per portare avanti le soluzioni ambientali.

Ecco la notizia Ansa:

(ANSA) – SACRAMENTO (CALIFORNIA) – Il protocollo di Kyoto non basta piu’. Per proteggere il clima ”diventa indispensabile definire una strategia e attuare misure con orizzonti ed effetti molto piu’ significativi di quelli definiti dal Protocollo” A lanciare una nuova sfida anti-emissioni nocive e’ il ministro dell’ambiente Altero Matteoli giunto a Sacramento in California per firmare un accordo di partnership con il governo statunitense in funzione della ricerca e dell’attuazione di nuove tecnologie per affrontare i cambiamenti climatici. Un accordo che si inserisce nell’ambito della due giorni di workshop che mettera’ a confronto le aziende statunitesni e italiane e che si e’ aperto oggi nella citta’ californiana. Se venisse confermato il trend attuale, entro il 2030 la domanda di energia aumentera’ piu’ del 50% e le relative emissioni di Co2 cresceranno piu’ del 60% rispetto ai livelli attuali a causa dell’incremento degli usi energetici dei combustibili fossili soprattutto nelle economie emergenti di Cina, India e altri Paesi in via di sviluppo con rischi per gli equilibri climatici. Proprio ”per garantire la stabilizzazione della concentrazione di Co2 a livelli di sicurezza entro la fine del secolo – ha detto Matteoli – gli scenari internazionali prevedono che sara’ necessario avviare, in un periodo compreso tra il 2020 e il 2050, una riduzione globale delle emissioni pari ad almeno il 50-60 per cento rispetto ai livelli del ’90”. Una percentuale che supera di gran lunga l’attuale 5,2% previsto dal protocollo di Kyoto solo per i Paesi maggiormente sviluppati. Ecco perche’, secondo il ministro, ”a cominciare dal 2020 la risposta alla domanda di energia dovra’ essere basata anche su un impiego sempre piu’ diffuso delle fonti rinnovabili, delle tecnologie collegate all’utilizzo dell’idrogeno e delle celle a combustibile, delle tecnologie ‘pulite’ e ad alta efficienza per l’impiego dei combustibili fossili e delle tecnologie per la ‘sequestration’ del carbonio”. In particolare, secondo il piano del ministero dell’ambiente, saranno necessari uno sforzo straordinario di ricerca e innovazione nel senso, ha spiegato Matteoli ”di un vero e proprio shock” tecnologico per rendere economicamente conveniente l’utilizzo di nuove fonti energetiche ‘pulite’ e sicure e, contemporaneamente, favorire la diversificazione dell’offerta rispetto ai combustibili fossili”. Accanto a questo, indispensabile un impegno generalizzato di tutti i Paesi, sviluppati e in via di sviluppo, al fine di ridurre le emissioni e giungere a una stabilizzazione della concentrazione di anidride carbonica in atmosfera. Terreno comune di questa sfida e’ la Convenzione quadro sui cambiamenti climatici sottoscritta a Rio ’92 che gli Usa ”non hanno mai rinnegato”, sottolinea il ministro Matteoli. Convenzione e ‘ponte’ della cooperazione tecnologica costituiscono in sostanza la base per costruire ”un nuovo partenariato tra Unione Europea e Usa sui cambiamenti climatici”. In tal senso il programma di cooperazione tecnologica e scientifica Italia-Usa rappresenta il primo mattone di questo nuovo impegno internazionale che non e’ alternativo a Kyoto ma va oltre quel protocollo. ”Questa riunione bilaterale – ha spiegato Matteoli – rappresenta in modo concreto la volonta’ dell’Italia e degli Usa di dare attuazione alla visione comune dei presidenti Bush e Berlusconi contenuta nella dichiarazione del luglio 2001, che impegna i nostri due Paesi a lavorare insieme sia per rafforzare la ricerca sui cambiamenti climatici sia per sviluppare tecnologie a basse emissioni”. A rispondere a queste esigenze diverse aziende italiane sbarcate in California per confrontarsi con i partner statunitensi. Cattura di Co2, celle a combustibile e micro turbine, produzione di idrogeno energie rinnovabili ed efficienza energetica i macro-argomenti sui quali verte il workshop di Sacramento al quale porteranno il loro contributo tra gli altri, Eni, Enel, Fiat, Enea, Politecnico di Milano, Ansaldo, Solvay. Ma per lanciare questa iniziativa globale Governi-imprese, e’ necessario, ha spiegato Corrado Clini, direttore generale del ministero dell’Ambiente e responsabile tecnico dei negoziati con gli Usa, garantire un sistema in grado di dare priorita- ai finanziamenti sulla ricerca tecnologica; di realizzare un quadro di standard internazionali per codificare i vantaggi ambientali ed energetici delle diverse opzioni; riorientare i fondi per il sostegno di questi progetti; introdurre il ‘free-trade’, ovvero il libero commercio delle tecnologie energetiche. Il tutto secondo una prospettiva che abolisca la logica fondata su obblighi e sanzioni, il command and control, e invece abbia come punto di riferimento accordi commerciali comuni”. (ANSA). GU