Niente più SWAP (Derivati) a Forlì

Il 29 Gennaio, in fase di approvazione del Bilancio Comunale, assieme all’opposizione sono stato tra i firmatari di un ordine del giorno per evitare l’utilizzo futuro di swap, i famosi prodotti finanziari derivati denunciati dalla trasmissione Report. L’ordine del giorno è stato bocciato, per il voto contrario del Partito Democratico.
Nel mio intervento ho dichiarato che gli swap, essendo di fatto operazioni ad alto rischio le cui ricadute si vedono dopo anni, sono una eredità pesante da lasciare alle prossime maggioranze ed anche per questo motivo non vanno usati.

AGGIORNAMENTO: Questa la nota del bilancio sull’uso degli SWAP da parte del nostro Comune. Grazie alla finanziaria questa informazione dal 2008 è obbligatoria, mentre gli anni passati non veniva comunicata al consiglio.
derivati-nota-integrativa-bilancio-2008.doc

ORDINE DEL GIORNO

Fra gli allegati del Bilancio di previsione 2008 ci viene oggi consegnata, in modo irrituale, una nota degli Uffici Amministrativi, a firma del dott. Giorgio Venanzi, con la quale il Consiglio viene così informato – è molto strano che non siano stati i Sindaci a farlo! – che anche il nostro Comune ha partecipato con una cifra di circa un miliardo di vecchie lire alla lotteria dei derivati: i titoli che sono nell’occhio del ciclone per la loro rischiosità e per aver messo fuori mercato numerose banche di rilievo, sia in America che in Europa.

Ma la circostanza più grave è rappresentata dal fatto che tale acquisizione è stata consigliata ed effettuata tramite il Consorzio di intermediazione finanziaria regionale, il Ce.S. F. E.L. di Reggio Emilia, che è stato, a suo tempo, scelto come consulente ed advisor del Comune per ogni nostra operazione finanziaria (mutui, ecc.).

E’ evidente che tale Consorzio ha dimostrato così di non avere né la competenza né l’esperienza e meno che meno la prudenza che sono necessarie per svolgere le funzioni che gli sono state delegate e si chiede, per questo, che si apra in Consiglio un dibattito approfondito per assumere, poi, un’opportuna decisione a tutela degli interessi patrimoniali del nostro Municipio.

Linux on a Compaq 1600 XL HOWTO

This Notebook is fully linux compatible

Here is the specifics of that notebook:

CPU Genuine Intel Celeron Mendocino 466 Mhz (Bogomips 927.33
Memory 64 Mb (I use 8 of this for the videoram)
Floppy Unknown 1.44MB 3.5″
Hard Disk Fujitsu 6Gb ATAPI / IDE
DVD Rom Toshiba DVD-ROM SD-C2302 ATAPI/IDE
Modem Conexant HSP MicroModem 56K pci (Software Modem)
Monitor: XTFT 14″
Video Card Trident Microsystems Cyberblade (generic) Cyberblade i1 pci
Sound Card Via Technologies Inc. VT82C686 pci [Apollo Super Ac97/audio]
Touchpad Synaptic

Thanks to Harddrake for those informations :) ( you can download it at http://www.linux-mandrake.com/harddrake∞ )
Update (27-5-2002): I’ve corrected the Mouse cursor problem with Linux in a Compaq Presario
Sometimes, when the memory is full and linux swaps on hard drive, the mouse cursor leave his correct position and the mouse clicks 1 cm left from the pointer. To correct that problem, insert the line Option “sw_cursor” in the Section “Device” of /etc/X11/XF68Config-4 configuration file. That corrects the problem. I’ve updated the configuration files.

Update: Now also the Conexant winmodem works correctly!
Thanks to Mark Hopkins for this wimodem help
You can find a driver at the location:
http://www.mbsi.ca/hsflinux/
I’ve tested it with Red Hat 7.2, and it works correctly. Because I don’t live on US, after the installation with the rpm of the driver I’ve launched that command:
# hsfconfig –country
And then Selected “Italy”. You can select here your different country.
See those urls to get more information:
http://www.linmodems.org
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/3217/Documents/WinModems.html
http://www.o2.net/~gromitkc/winmodem.html
http://walbran.org/sean/linux/linmodem-howto.html

I’ve installed a Mandrake 7.2 , a Red Hat 7.1 and a Red Hat 7.2 distribution. They don’t recognize our graphic card, but the only thing you have to do is to replace the /etc/X11/XF86Config or /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 with the one provided in this page. (Read the files table). I use the touchpad or an external ps2 mouse, there’s no problem with the configuration.
If you want to use an external ps2 wheel mouse you must disable the gpm daemon on console, because it makes the mouse on console crazy and flipping. If you want to use the wheel, you must edit the section “imputdevice” as follow

Section “InputDevice”
Identifier “Mouse0”
# Modified by mouseconfig
Driver “mouse”
Option “Device” “/dev/mouse”
Option “Protocol” “IMPS/2”
Option “Emulate3Buttons” “no”
Option “ZAxisMapping” “4 5”
EndSection

This notebook has a confortable little display that shows the battery status, so I have not installed any dock to show the apm status in my desktop. Just run “apm” on a console if you want the % of charge.

And here is my configuration files:
Kernel Configuration (version 2.2.4-test11).
The soundcard works with the Via kernel driver, just do a modprobe to load the modules (Red Hat 7.2 does it automatically): .config

Xfree Configuration (for version 3.3.6)

It’s with italian keyboard, so if you want an other country map just modify the keyboard section and substitute the “it” with your keymap.

I used there 8 Mb for the videoram, setted from the bios. To use the mtrr acceleration, execute this command (after recompiling the kernel, with my .config file or with mtrr enabled):

echo “base=0xF5000000 size=8192k type=write-combining” >/proc/mtrr

XF86Config

Xfree Configuration (for version 4.*) (NEW)
The only way to make the new Xfree working with our laptop is to change first the /etc/lilo.conf file, adding a line with the VGA mode. If not, launching the Xfree server you will get working section of video, but not centered and moved on the right (if you can correct this error, send the solution to me). So change the lilo.conf file like this:

boot=/dev/hda
map=/boot/map
install=/boot/boot.b
vga=791 <-------- That line is fundamental lba32 prompt timeout=30 message=/boot/message default=Windows image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.2-2 label=linux read-only root=/dev/hda7 append="ide=ata66 idebus=66" vga=788 <--------# That line is fundamental image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.2-2 <----- this section is the same # that above, but without the vga line. Add it to be #sure when you will #reboot to have at least one lilo image working. label=linuxtext read-only root=/dev/hda7 append="idebus=66 ide0=ata66 ide0=dma hda=autotune ide0=autotune" other=/dev/hda1 <--- this is not fundamental :) optional label=Windows Then you must be sure to use the Xfree 4 version. In modern distribution (like Mandrake 7.2, 8, Red Hat 7.1 and so on) you have the choice at the installation time. After that, you can change the Xfree version running on your machine by changing the /etc/X11/X simbolic link. If it brings to /usr/bin/X11/XFree86 then you're using the 4.* version. If it link to a /usr/bin/X11/XF86_* then you're using the 3.3.6 one. Just change that link to the one you want!! So now you can put my configuration file XF86Config-4 in your /etc/X11 dir. It's with italian keyboard, so if you want an other country map just modify the keyboard section and substitute the "it" with your keymap. I used there 4 Mb for the videoram, setted from the bios. To use the mtrr acceleration, se the relative documentation in the kernel source tree. Files XF86Config (version 3) # XF86Config auto-generated by XF86Setup # # Copyright (c) 1996 by The XFree86 Project, Inc. # # Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a # copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), # to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation # the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, # and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the # Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: # # The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in # all copies or substantial portions of the Software. # # THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR # IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL # THE XFREE86 PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, # WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF # OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE # SOFTWARE. # # Except as contained in this notice, the name of the XFree86 Project shall # not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other # dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the # XFree86 Project. # # See 'man XF86Config' for info on the format of this file Section "Files" RgbPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb" FontPath "unix/:-1" # FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi:unscaled,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi:unscaled,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/URW,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi,/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi" EndSection Section "ServerFlags" EndSection Section "Keyboard" Protocol "Standard" AutoRepeat 250 30 LeftAlt Meta RightAlt Meta ScrollLock Compose RightCtl Control XkbKeycodes "xfree86" XkbTypes "default" XkbCompat "default" XkbSymbols "us(pc105)" XkbGeometry "pc" XkbRules "xfree86" XkbModel "pc105" XkbLayout "it" # XkbSymbols "us(pc101)" # XkbModel "pc101" #"pc104" # XkbLayout "us" #"de" # XkbVariant "nodeadkeys" EndSection Section "Pointer" Protocol "PS/2" Device "/dev/psaux" BaudRate 1200 Emulate3Timeout 50 EndSection Section "Monitor" Identifier "Generic Multisync" VendorName "Unknown" ModelName "Unknown" HorizSync 30-64 VertRefresh 60-60 Modeline "1024x768" 65.00 1024 1032 1176 1344 768 771 777 806 -hsync -vsync EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "Generic VGA" VendorName "Unknown" BoardName "Unknown" Chipset "generic" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "My Video Card" VendorName "Unknown" BoardName "Unknown" Chipset "cyberblade" EndSection Section "Screen" Driver "Accel" Device "My Video Card" Monitor "Generic Multisync" DefaultColorDepth 32 BlankTime 0 SuspendTime 0 OffTime 0 SubSection "Display" Depth 8 Modes "1024x768" ViewPort 0 0 EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 15 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 24 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 32 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection EndSection Section "Screen" Driver "SVGA" Device "My Video Card" Monitor "Generic Multisync" DefaultColorDepth 32 BlankTime 0 SuspendTime 0 OffTime 0 SubSection "Display" Depth 8 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 15 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 24 Modes "1024x768" ViewPort 0 0 EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 32 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection EndSection Section "Screen" Driver "VGA16" Device "Generic VGA" Monitor "Generic Multisync" BlankTime 0 SuspendTime 0 OffTime 0 SubSection "Display" Depth 4 Modes "1024x768" ViewPort 0 0 EndSubSection EndSection Section "Screen" Driver "VGA2" Device "Generic VGA" Monitor "Generic Multisync" BlankTime 0 SuspendTime 0 OffTime 0 SubSection "Display" Depth 1 Modes "1024x768" ViewPort 0 0 EndSubSection EndSection XF86Config-4 # XFree86 4.0 configuration generated by Xconfigurator Section "ServerLayout" Identifier "XFree86 Configured" Screen 0 "Screen0" 0 0 InputDevice "Mouse0" "CorePointer" InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard" EndSection # By default, Red Hat Linux 6.0 and later use xfs Section "Files" FontPath "unix/:7100" EndSection # Module loading section Section "Module" Load "dbe" # Double-buffering Load "GLcore" # OpenGL support Load "dri" # Direct rendering infrastructure Load "glx" # OpenGL X protocol interface Load "extmod" # Misc. required extensions Load "v4l" # Video4Linux # Load "pex5" # PHIGS for X 3D environment (obsolete) # Load "record" # X event recorder # Load "xie" # X Image Extension (obsolete) # You only need the following two modules if you do not use xfs. # Load "freetype" # TrueType font handler # Load "type1" # Adobe Type 1 font handler EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Keyboard0" Driver "keyboard" Option "XkbLayout" "it" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Mouse0" # Modified by mouseconfig Driver "mouse" Option "Device" "/dev/mouse" Option "Protocol" "PS/2" Option "Emulate3Buttons" "no" Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" EndSection Section "Monitor" Identifier "CustomConfiguration" VendorName "Unknown" ModelName "Unknown" HorizSync 31.5-57 VertRefresh 50-90 Option "dpms" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "My Video Card" Driver "trident" BoardName "Unknown" # Use Option "nolinear" if the server doesn't start up correctly # (this avoids the linear framebuffer probe). If that fails try # option "nomemaccess". # # Refer to /usr/X11R6/lib/doc/README.S3, and the XF86_S3 man page. EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "Linux Frame Buffer" Driver "fbdev" BoardName "Unknown" EndSection Section "Screen" Identifier "Screen0" Device "My Video Card" Monitor "CustomConfiguration" DefaultDepth 16 Subsection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection EndSection Section "DRI" Mode 0666 EndSection XF86Config-4 Debian ### BEGIN DEBCONF SECTION # XF86Config-4 (XFree86 server configuration file) generated by dexconf, the # Debian X Configuration tool, using values from the debconf database. # # Edit this file with caution, and see the XF86Config-4 manual page. # (Type "man XF86Config-4" at the shell prompt.) # # If you want your changes to this file preserved by dexconf, only make changes # before the "### BEGIN DEBCONF SECTION" line above, and/or after the # "### END DEBCONF SECTION" line below. # # To change things within the debconf section, run the command: # dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xfree86 # as root. Also see "How do I add custom sections to a dexconf-generated # XF86Config or XF86Config-4 file?" in /usr/share/doc/xfree86-common/FAQ.gz. Section "Files" FontPath "unix/:7100" # local font server # if the local font server has problems, we can fall back on these FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/:unscaled" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/:unscaled" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/Type1" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi" FontPath "/usr/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi" EndSection Section "Module" Load "GLcore" Load "bitmap" Load "dbe" Load "ddc" Load "dri" Load "extmod" Load "freetype" Load "glx" Load "int10" Load "pex5" Load "record" Load "speedo" Load "type1" Load "vbe" Load "xie" # Load "xtt" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Generic Keyboard" Driver "keyboard" Option "CoreKeyboard" Option "XkbRules" "xfree86" Option "XkbModel" "pc105" Option "XkbLayout" "it" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Configured Mouse" Driver "mouse" Option "CorePointer" Option "Device" "/dev/psaux" Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2" Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Generic Mouse" Driver "mouse" Option "SendCoreEvents" "true" Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2" Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "Trident Cyberblade i1" Driver "trident" VideoRam 8024 Option "sw_cursor" EndSection Section "Monitor" Identifier "Generic Monitor" HorizSync 30-60 VertRefresh 50-75 Option "DPMS" EndSection Section "Screen" Identifier "Default Screen" Device "Trident Cyberblade i1" Monitor "Generic Monitor" DefaultDepth 24 SubSection "Display" Depth 1 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 4 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 8 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 15 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 24 Modes "1024x768" EndSubSection EndSection Section "ServerLayout" Identifier "Default Layout" Screen "Default Screen" InputDevice "Generic Keyboard" InputDevice "Configured Mouse" InputDevice "Generic Mouse" EndSection Section "DRI" Mode 0666 EndSection ### END DEBCONF SECTION I'm working to use the special internet keys over the keyboard, so stay tuned! Please email me anything you want to add or modify into this page.

LTSP with PXE boot MINI-HOWTO

LTSP with PXE boot MINI-HOWTO

Table of Contents

1)Introduction:
2)Install LTSP ( In my Red Hat 9 I have: ltsp_core, ltsp_kernel, ltsp_x_core , ltsp_x_fonts)
3)Install and configure TFTP Server ( tftp-server)
4)Install and configure DHCP Server ( dhcp)
5)Configure LTSP

Introduction:

PXE is a system used to boot a client pc without using a boot floppy or an hard disk. To use it, you must have a PXE compatible network card. When you will boot the pc, PXE will ask to a DHCP server an IP and the network configuration. After that, we will send a PXE image to the pc client, that will do a preliminar boot action and will search an Etherboot image, and then we will send the Etherboot image with LTSP kernel.
To make an LTSP server with PXE boot, you need this software: LTSP, TFTP, Dhcpd.

Install LTSP ( In my Red Hat 9 I have: ltsp_core, ltsp_kernel, ltsp_x_core , ltsp_x_fonts)

To install LTSP , you can use the binary packages for your distribution (rpm, deb), or the source packages . You can download it directly from www.ltsp.org. The installation of that packages is well described on www.ltsp.org/documentation, so I will not rewrite that instructions.

Install and configure TFTP Server ( tftp-server)

In a Red Hat, you must install tftp-server, with:

rpm -ivh tftp-server

and then edit the file /etc/xinetd.d/tftp, changing the line:

disable = yes

with

disable = no

That’s because the tftp server is executed into xinetd superserver, and it’s disabled by default for security matters.

Install and configure DHCP Server ( dhcp)

In a Red Hat, you must install dhcp, with:

rpm -ivh dhcp

Then you must configure all the clients to get an automatic IP and hostname, matching a MAC address. This is my configuration for two client pc:

# Sample configuration file for ISCD dhcpd
#
# Don’t forget to set run_dhcpd=1 in /etc/init.d/dhcpd
# once you adjusted this file and copied it to /etc/dhcpd.conf.
#

default-lease-time 21600;
max-lease-time 21600;
ddns-update-style none;

option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option broadcast-address 172.16.0.255;
option routers 172.16.0.254;
option domain-name-servers 151.99.125.2;
option domain-name “folug.lan”;
option root-path “172.16.0.100:/opt/ltsp/i386”;

shared-network WORKSTATIONS {

subnet 172.16.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 { }
}

group {

use-host-decl-names on;
option log-servers 172.16.0.100;

host ws001 {

hardware ethernet 00:40:F4:66:EC:0F;
fixed-address 172.16.0.99;

if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = “PXEClient” {
filename “/eb-5.0.10-rtl8139b.lzpxe”;
} else if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = “Etherboot” {

filename “/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1”;
option vendor-encapsulated-options 3c:09:45:74:68:65:72:62:6f:6f:74:ff;
}
}

host ws002 {
hardware ethernet 00:40:F4:47:CA:CF;
fixed-address 172.16.0.98;

if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = “PXEClient” {
filename “/eb-5.0.10-rtl8139b.lzpxe”;
}

else if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = “Etherboot”
{
filename “/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1”;
option vendor-encapsulated-options 3c:09:45:74:68:65:72:62:6f:6f:74:ff;
}

}

}

The line :

f substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = “PXEClient” {

controls that at PXE boot the dhcp server sends the image given by filename expression. The image is downloaded from from http://www.rom-o-omatic.org∞, and it’s based on the type of network card. Put this image on /tftpboot directory, because we need to send it with tftp.
The path given in the filename expression is relative to tftpboot, so pay attention:
if the file is on /tftpboot/eb-5.0.10-rtl8139b.lzpxe, you must use the row:

filename “/eb-5.0.10-rtl8139b.lzpxe”; # correct

# and NOT :

filename “/tftpboot/eb-5.0.10-rtl8139b.lzpxe”; # error!!!

If you put the absolute path on hard disk, PXE will say File not found. The line:

else if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = “Etherboot” {

Is used to send the second image to the client pc, with the LTSP kernel image. This is also relative to tftpboot, so pay attention again to NOT USE the server absolute path of the image. This image is into the ltsp-kernel package, and it’s located in

/tftpboot/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1

Configure LTSP

Now that you have configured tftp and dhcp with the use of PXE, we need to write the configuration file for the ltsp clients.
This file is located in

/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf

and contains a configuration for each client:

[ws001]

XSERVER = auto
X_MODE_0 = 1024×768
LOCAL_APPS = N
USE_NFS_SWAP = N
SWAPFILE_SIZE = 48m
XkbLayout = it
RUNLEVEL = 5′

ws0001 must be the hostname of the client, given by dhcp server
Other options are available, but you must read the LTSP documentation, it’s useless a copy-paste other’s work in this mini-howto.